Electrical Oscillations Signature Profiling
BEOSP is a
computer-based technology to identify the perpetrator of a crime accurately
and scientifically by measuring brain-wave responses to crime-relevant words
or pictures presented on a computer screen.
technique is not for interrogation. It does not require any questions or any
answers. It reveals objectively whether information is present in the brain,
regardless of whether any false or truthful statements are made by the
subject. The brain does the talking. The FBI agents were identified with
measures individual brain-wave responses to relevant words, pictures or
sounds presented by a computer. The measurements are recorded in fractions
of a second after the stimulus is presented, before the subject is able to
formulate or control a response. In a major milestone for the company, the
results of this patented testing methodology have been ruled admissible in
court as scientific evidence. The technology has many exciting applications
in several very large markets: national security, medical diagnostics,
advertising, insurance fraud and in the criminal justice system.
WORKING & APPLICATION:
HOW IT WORKS?
Fingerprinting testing works as follows:
- Words or pictures
relevant to a crime are flashed on a computer screen, along with other
irrelevant words or pictures.
- Electrical Brain
responses are measured non-invasively through a patented headband equipped
- Lawrence Farwell had
discovered that a scientific brain-wave response called a MERMER (Memory
and Encoding Related Multifaceted Electroencephalographic Response) is
elicited when the brain processes noteworthy information it recognizes.
- Thus, when details of
the crime that only the perpetrator would know are presented, a MERMER is
emitted by the brain of a perpetrator, but not by the brain of an innocent
suspect. In Farwell Brain Fingerprinting, a computer analyzes the brain
response to detect the MERMER, and thus determines scientifically whether
the specific crime-relevant information is stored in the brain of the
fundamental difference between the perpetrator of a crime and an innocent
person is that the perpetrator, having committed the crime, has the details
of the crime stored in his memory, and the innocent suspect does not. This
is what Brain fingerprinting testing detects scientifically, the presence or
absence of specific information.
In a Brain fingerprinting
test, relevant words, pictures or sounds are presented to a subject by a
computer in a series with irrelevant and control stimuli. The brainwave
responses to these stimuli are measured using a patented headband equipped
with EEG sensors. The data is then analyzed to determine if the relevant
information is present in the subject’s memory. A specific, measurable brain
response known as a P300, is emitted by the brain of a subject who has the
relevant information stored in his brain, but not by a subject who does not
have this record in his brain.
The P300 response has been
extensively researched for more than 30 years. This research has been widely
published in leading professional journals and the P300 response has gained
broad acceptance in the scientific field of psychophysiology. In his
research on the P300 response, Dr. Farwell discovered that the P300 was one
aspect of a larger brain-wave response that he named and patented, a MERMER
(memory and encoding related multifaceted electroencephalographic response).
The discovery of the MERMER allows the results gained through P300 testing
to be substantially more accurate. Since the inclusion of the MERMER in the
brain-wave analysis algorithm, Brain fingerprinting has made a definitive
determination in every case, with more than 200 subjects having been tested.
brain stores information in the form of signals in different sensory
modalities all through the waking periods. These signals are classified in
terms of their relationship perceived as function of experience and existing
knowledge, as well as new relationship produced through sequential
processing. The process is called encoding which is primary, if individual
has directly participated or experienced. It is considered secondary when
the information is obtained from secondary sources such as watching,
listening etc. Primary encoding is deep seated as the individual
himself/herself will have shared or participated in the
experience/act/event. Such encoded information can be found when the brain
is activated by using portion of the information relating to the act/event
which is part of the event. The brain of the subject who has participated in
such event, will respond differently from that of a person who either has
not participated or received the same information from secondary sources.
The retrieval of information by Brain Mapping is based on this
principle. By using this technique, it is possible to identify the precise
individual who has perpetrated crime and can be differentiated from that of
those who have acquired information from the secondary sources. The
individuals who have Primary encoded information will show the
characteristic brain responses which are indicative of the possession of
first hand knowledge [personally acquired] of the event.
fundamental difference between an innocent and the guilty person in the
crime scenario is that, a guilty person has committed crime and has the
record of crime stored in the Brain and no information is present in the
innocent’s Brain. Event Related Potentials [ERP’s] are the potential changes
with which the brain reacts to particular stimulus which is time locked. The
functional significance of several ERP components during human information
processing is well described. In the present paper “Brain mapping” a new,
non-invasive, specific and accurate method of detection of concealed
information about crime, based on ERP, is described. A component of ERP such
as P3 or P300 is used as most promising detection index as it is robust,
consistent and of neuropsychological significance. The ease of recordings of
P3 components and their large amplitudes offer additional advantages in
general and for retrieval of crime information in particular. The P3 is
elicited by rare and meaningful events that are relevant and specific to the
participant and his tasks. A little over than 500 individuals connected with
variety of crimes reported from across the country are subjected to Brain
mapping test. It is found that the rapidity of processing and significant
activation of P300 amplitudes were observed in respect of real perpetrators
and no such activities were observed in respect of innocents. Significant
changes in activation were observed even among the individuals who were
subjected to the test as witnesses for their specific activities. The
characters in the P300 amplitudes were found to be significantly different
in respect of the information obtained from primary encoding and those form
secondary sources. Various analytical tools are used to evaluate the
statistical confidence levels of the ERP signals and the accuracy of the
information elicited was 99.98%. This technology is of great help to
unambiguously identify the perpetrators and innocents but also to
differentiate the perpetrator from witnesses or complainants. The Brain
mapping technology has not only revolutionized the causes of crime
investigation but also has survived a series of legal challenges under
Articles 20 (3) and 21 of the Indian constitution. The degree of legal
acceptance for the conduct of Brain mapping test has led various High Courts
to redefine the scope of constitutional provision vest under Article 20 (3)
and Article 21 of the Indian constitution holding them as not “Absolute”.
Lawrence A. Farwell introduced Brain finger printing technique for solving
crimes in the year 2001. He claims as is stated in his web site
“Farewell Brain fingerprinting is a revolutionary new technology for solving
crime with a record of 100% accuracy and ----. The technology is fully
developed and available for application in the field”.
How P300 works?
There are two kinds of
memories: conceptual memory and autobiographical memory. P300 is used to
measure the autobiographical or experiential memory. When an
autobiographical memory is remembered a particular part of the brain called
ventromedial part of anterior cingulate gyrus is activated. A single
electrode is enough to measure a P300.
A thief is made to
recall sequentially the way he robbed the house. He is also, for example,
shown the picture of the house or presented with the auditory stimulus which
he might have heard while robbing the house, and is asked whether he
recognizes the picture or the tone. When he responds, if he has actually
been in the house, a P300 is generated. Even when he answers with a no, P300
is generated, but with various other potentialities. So there is a sort of
conflict here; the variables are confounded. This is one of the
disadvantages of the P300.
To generate a map you
need to have 20 to 30 electrodes fixed to the scalp. A lot of data for
research can be obtained by using only 6 to 8 electrodes. But for clinical
purposes at least 20 electrodes are required.
The technology of Brain
mapping developed has revolutionized the causes of crime investigation in
the country and has obtained laurels and recognitions by the Judiciary and
Investigating agencies. Further, the Brain mapping technology has survived a
series of legal challenges under Article 20 (3) and Article 21 of Indian
Decisions rendered by various Hon’ble High Courts
in the country are available in the following:
1] ALL MR (Cri) 1704, (2004) [Bombay High Court].
2] Order of Hon’ble High Court of Karnataka in CRL
petition no 964/2000 September ( 2004).
3] ALL. MR (Cri) 74, (2005) [Orrisa High Court].
4] Cri I.J.2401 (2006) [Madras High court]
5] Arun Gulab Gawali Vs State of Maharastra and others
in WP No.2739/2005
6] Cri. L. J. 2401 (2006) [Madras High Court].
7] Madurai Bench of Hon’ble High court of Madras in
Crl.R.C. (MD) No.380 of 2007 and MP (MD) No 1 of 2007
1. Apparatus for monitoring, analyzing
and when required counteracting excess brain electrical energy of a patient
to prevent epileptic seizures and the like, said apparatus including: (a)
three electrodes adapted to be implanted in the brain being monitored, each
electrode connected through conductors to a constantly energized and
connected electronic circuit, said electrodes including a first implantable
electrode adapted to be placed in a zero activity point of the brain, the
electrical output from this first electrode detecting the levels of normal
and abnormal electrical energy and feeding this output as a signal to the
electronics circuit portion of the apparatus, a second implantable electrode
adapted to be placed in a typical point of detection area of the brain, the
output from this electrode sent as a signal from this area to the electronic
circuit, and a third implantable electrode adapted to be placed in a typical
point of control of the same brain, this electrode receiving countermotive
forces from the electronic circuit when said circuit so determines; (b) an
electronic means and an amplifier means in said electronic circuit, said
electronic means receiving the output of the implantable second electrode
and inverting this output after which the resulting electrical signal is fed
to said amplifier means of the electronic circuit, said amplifier means
providing a comparison and addition means to incoming signals; (c) a
conductor connected to the first electrode, said conductor being connected
to said amplifier means and carrying the electrical energy level of the zero
activity portion of the brain to the amplifier which analyzes and compares
this energy level in relation to previously established normal; (d) means
for sending a reference voltage to the amplifier comparison and addition
circuit, this reference voltage established and set by the operator in
accordance to previously determined electrical thresholds of the brain of
the patient in which the electrodes are to be implanted, this reference
voltage being compared by and in said amplifier circuit and where necessary
a vector addition is made by this amplifier circuit to add voltage to the
inverted received voltage; (e) a circuit means in the electronic circuit for
receiving and monitoring the signal from the comparison and addition circuit
means and when this signal exceeds a set level amplifies this signal a
determined amount; (f) a circuit means providing both passive and active
electronic network means for receiving the monitored and amplified signal
indicative of excess energy outputs from the second electrode and within
predetermined maximum limits provides a countermotive force which is sent
through a conductor to the third electrode which force quells this storm in
the brain, and (g) a power means connected to the electrical circuit to
supply a constantly "on" power necessary to energize the electrical circuit
to normal operating levels.
2. Apparatus for monitoring and counteracting excess brain electrical energy
as in claim 1 in which the power means is a battery whose energy level is
monitored by a self test circuit means and there is additionally circuit
means connected to said power means providing a limit control and an alarm
which is actuated when the voltage drops below that set by the limit
3. Apparatus for monitoring and counteracting excess brain electrical energy
as in claim 2 in which there is provided an oscillator which generates a
high frequency signal connected to the circuit means for receiving and
monitoring the signal from the comparison and addition circuit, this high
frequency signal being used as a carrier for a feedback signal when such a
signal is sent to the third electrode.
4. Apparatus for monitoring and counteracting excess brain electrical energy
as in claim 3 in which the electronic circuit includes a filter connected
between said comparison and analog addition means and said circuit means for
receiving and monitoring the signal from the comparison and analog addition
means which receives the signal output from electronic circuit means
providing the comparison and analog addition function and filters the
electronic flow to prevent this flow from interfering with other electrical
brain functions such as heart beat and respiration, said filtered signal
being conducted and fed to the circuit means for receiving and monitoring
the signal from the comparison and addition circuit means.
5. Apparatus for monitoring and counteracting excess brain electrical energy
as in claim 4 in which the electrodes are adapted to be permanently
implanted and the electronics and battery therefore are encased so as to
provide a small size unit which may be easily carried on and by the body of
the one being monitored.
6. A method for monitoring and counteracting excess brain electrical energy
to prevent epileptic seizures which includes the steps of: (a) implanting
three electrodes in the brain of the mammal being monitored, the first
electrode being placed in a zero activity point of the brain and from this
electrode feeding its electrical output to a constantly energized and
connected electronic circuit, the second electrode being placed in a typical
point of detection area of the brain and a third electrode being placed in a
typical point of control of the same brain; (b) connecting the electronic
circuit to the second electrode by a conductor and inverting electronically
the output of the brain from this second electrode and feeding the resulting
inverted signal to an electronic means in said circuit to provide a
comparison and addition means to incoming signals; (c) connecting a
conductor to the first electrode which carries the electrical energy level
of the zero activity in the brain, this electrical energy being fed to the
comparison circuit for analysis of the energy in relation to a normal energy
level; (d) setting by the one in charge of the apparatus a reference voltage
control level, this reference voltage being fed to the electronic means
providing the comparison, said means performing vector addition when
necessary; (e) feeding the output signal current of the addition means to a
level set amplifier portion of the electronic circuit, which, when
necessary, amplifies this current signal; (f) sending the signal from the
level set amplifier to a safety limit circuit portion of the electronic
circuit, this portion providing passive and active electronic networks which
receive this signal and in the cases of excessive energy outputs from the
second electrode and the comparison circuit feeds a countermotive force to
the third electrode to quell an anticipated storm in the brain, and (g)
providing a power means which enables the electronic circuit portion of the
apparatus to be constantly energized.
7. The method for monitoring and counteracting excess brain electrical
energy as in claim 6 in which the step of providing the power means is a
battery whose energy level is monitored by a self-test circuit having a low
voltage limit control and an alarm.
8. The method for monitoring and counteracting excess brain electrical
energy as in claim 7 which includes the further step of connecting an
oscillator which generates a high frequency signal so as to feed said
oscillating signal to the level set amplifier portion of the electronic
circuit with this high frequency signal providing a carrier for the feedback
signal to the third electrode.
9. The method for monitoring and counteracting excess brain electrical
energy as in claim 8 which includes the step of providing a filter which
receives the signal output from the electronic means providing the
comparison and analog addition and filters the electronic current therefrom
to prevent this current signal from interfering with other electrical brain
functions such as the heart beat and respiration and feeding said filtered
signal to the level set amplifier portion of the electronic circuit.
10. The method for monitoring and counteracting excess brain electrical
energy as in claim 9 which includes permanently implanting the electrodes
and further includes encasing the electronics and battery to provide a small
unit which may be easily carried on the body of the one monitored.
USE AND OPERATION
Automatic feedback control is the essence of this invention in that this
control receives signals indicating aberrant energy from the brain, analyses
it electronically as necessary and with a proper safety and power supply
means then feeds electric energy back into the brain in opposition to the
original aberrant level so that the net resultant voltage, current and/or
electrical field in localized areas on the brain is maintained at no level
greater than that experienced during normal behavior. The electronic
feedback device of this invention is applied not only to those types of
epilepsy where aura is electrically seen prior to an actual seizure
(typified by some types of Grand Mal and Temporal Lobe Epilepsy) but also is
applied to some types of mental illness where psychic storms occur providing
electrical activity in the brain similar to that of epilepsy but having as
its manifestations psychic storms instead of physiological seizures.
The means of detecting and controlling the voltage level of the brain is
through the use of implanted electrodes 12, 14 and 16. The reason for
employing implanted electrodes as compared to surface electrodes is to
provide the exact point of application in the brain where either the point
of detection or the point of control can be found without having the
electrical path through the skull either deterioriate the signal in terms of
the detection signal due to the impedance of the fluids, tissue, skull bone
and other media between such point of detection and an external point.
Similarly, a control signal for feedback data, if applied externally, would
require a larger electrical signal to produce a comparable control. Typical
electrical voltages represented in medical research studies reveal that when
monitored internally a normal brain pattern signal can reach 10 millivolts
while the same signal monitored outside the skull produces a level of
approximately 10 microvolts.
The aura condition of an epileptic seizure can in fact increase the
electrical activity a factor of 10 times to a level 100 millivolts (when
monitored internally). Hence, for a corrective signal to be applied in
opposition to such an aberrant level, a minus 90 millivolts level would be
internally applied whereas approximately minus 90 volts would be externally
applied; a quantity which could be dangerous. Therefore, in the present
invention internal electrodes are to be used so that the voltage control
will be at low levels which is safe.
The concept of automatic feedback has been used in the field of servo
technology for many years. The uniqueness of the present invention is the
application of automatic feedback theory and devices wherein the electrical
energy of a mammal such as a human is considered part of a servo loop in the
automatic feedback. The normalizing of this current flow provides a
resultant improvement in the mammal's performance where without such
feedback control afflictions such as epilepsy and mental illness prevent the
normal behavior of that particular mammal and the resulting deterioration
caused by the affliction.
The employment of this system requires implanted electrodes, transdermal
wires and external electronics. It is noted that just as history with heart
pacemakers has shown that totally implanted devices can be made practical,
so also is it anticipated that this device with sufficient experience and
history will be implanted with the application of electronic
miniaturization. The miniature electronic detection and control device of
this invention will be capable of being totally implanted thus eliminating
transdermal wire with the inherent possibility of damage and failure of the
In use, detected signal from electrode 14 is carried by conductor 20 to an
inverting circuit 22 where the signal is reversed in polarity (minus the
reference voltage level) in order to be added to the aberrant brain
electrical level during the epileptic or psychic storms. This causes the
brain voltage to be reduced to that of the reference level. This action is
similar to that of adding several voltages together in an analog computer at
a "summing junction" where the resultant electrical levels are the algebraic
sum of all voltages added at that point. This, of course, takes into
consideration the sign or phase of the voltages being added.
The "common" or "ground" electrode 12 is used as a reference point against
which the electrical levels at the point of detection, the point of control
and all other computing reference and safety electrical levels is judged and
The inverted signal -X from circuit 22 is carried by conductor 26 to the
comparison and analog addition circuit 24. Also to electronic circuit 24 is
fed signal R which is carried by conductor 28 and is the reference voltage
level set by the doctor. Another signal is the brain signal from the
"common" electrode 12 which is fed to this comparison circuit. Direct
current power to operate the electronic circuitry is derived from the power
supply 50 which has its own related safety and self-test circuitry 54 which
when used as a permanently installed unit includes a low limit alarm 56
which indicates when a malfunction or voltage loss occurs.
The comparison and analog addition circuitry 24 receives the inverted signal
-X from conductor 26 and combines this algebraically with signal R carried
by conductor 28 so that the electrical quantity R-X is produced as a raw
signal yet to be conditioned for use as the ultimate feedback signal. This
raw signal is fed by conductor 34 to the filter 32 which removes all
frequency components which could effect vital functions such as respiration
and heart action. The frequency band usable for these functions is
approximately 5 to 40 herz. The signal entering the modulation and level set
amplifier 30 is the electrical quantity R-X limited within the frequencies
of F to F2 (approximately 5 to 10 herz).
The oscillator 40 and modulator level set amplifier 30 are both operated
from the same battery power supply 50, noted above.
The oscillator generates a high frequency carrier signal wherein there is
created a selected frequency having a range from 40,000 herz to 1 million
herz. The need to use a high frequency carrier is so as to utilize the
lowest voltage possible in the carrier electrical signals and also to
utilize the inherent electrical phenomenon manifest in the synapsis of the
brain. Since the electrical nerve pathways in the body are really composed
of synapsis which react to provide electrical energy transfer similar to the
semiconductor devices called diodes the operator of the device is able to
forecast the utilization of these synaptic pathways as diode detectors. This
means that the diode characteristic which is used in radio circuits to
separate the audio information from the high frequency carrier signal is
like the present circuit of this invention where it is planned to use the
conditioned feedback signal to detect and provide for brain control
utilizing the brain synapsis. The brain synapsis is emloyed to demodulate
the correct data from the high frequency carrier which by itself is not seen
by the rest of the body. The level set amplifier 30 is set by the doctor so
that the particular mammal being treated has the determined electrical
levels set to compensate for the particular levels required to stablize the
brain activity of that mammal. If the control signal is fed back into the
same area from which the electrode received signals are set, the voltage is
likely to be at unity value with respect to the originating signal. However,
when it is necessary to apply the control signal at a point of control which
is different from the point of detection by the electrodes it will be
required to use a ratio scale to increase or decrease the control signal
experimentally to determine that signal level necessary at the point of
control which is required to quell or stabilize the detected aberrant energy
in the brain.
The modulator 30 receives the high frequency signal generated by the
oscillator 40 and impinges on the signal the envelope of frequencies
entering the modulator and level set amplifier 30. These frequencies include
the electrical signal quantity R-X filtered from F1 to F2 by filter 32 which
modulates in amplitude the high frequency signal. The resulting conditioned
electrical signal is sent by conductor 42 to the safety limit circuit 44.
This safety limit circuit 44 provides additional electrical safeguards to
prevent either momentary or long term pulses or continuous electrical
signals from developing to a level which will be injurious to the mammal
involved. As the time constant of energy of the physiological mammal is in
terms of milliseconds and the electrical condition and functioning of the
control circuit is in terms of microseconds, the electronic circuit acts at
a rate which is responsive and available to assist the physiological needs
of the mammal.
Self-test circuit 54 is designed to assure the mammal, when human, to which
this device is connected that the electronic circuit is in an operative
condition ready for activiation without any jeopardy of the operation
arising from low battery voltage.
It is anticipated, as above noted, that the initial electronics and power
source (battery and control safety circuits) will occupy a volume less than
a pack of standard cigarettes and be externally carried on the user. With
the use of micro electronics it is further anticipated that this size can
ultimately be further reduced and the electronics and power source be
mounted beneath the skin surface of the user in the form of a small wafer.
Terms such as "left," "right," "up," "down," "bottom," "top," "front,"
"back," "in," "out" and the like are applicable to the embodiment shown and
described in conjunction with the drawings. These terms are merely for the
purpose of description and do not necessarily apply to the position in which
the apparatus for monitoring and counteracting excess brain energy may be
constructed or used.
While this particular embodiment of the apparatus and method of use has been
shown and described it is to be understood the invention is not limited
thereto since modifications may be made within the scope of the accompanying
claims and protection is sought to the broadest extent the prior art allows.
Dr. C. Mukundan, National Institute of Mental
Health & Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore
Dr. S.Malini & Dr. B. Mohan, Forensic Science
Brain Fingerprinting Laboratories, Inc.
Donchin et al, Behavioural Brain Sciences 1988
Dalbey, B. (1999). “Brain Fingerprinting Testing Traps
Serial Killer in Missouri.” The Fairfield Ledger. Fairfield, IA, August,
1999, p 1.
Dale, S.S. (2001). “THE BRAIN SCIENTIST: Climbing
Inside the Criminal Mind.” TIME Magazine, Nov. 26, 2001, pp 80-81.
Druckman, D. and Lacey J.I. (1989). Brain and
cognition: some new technologies. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
Ms. Rohini Kishor, M.Sc. Forensic Science, Amity University.